toxicity

Do e-cigarettes pose a risk to human health?

FRAME is concerned that health claims are being made about e-cigarettes without the benefit of accurate data. In the latest issue of FRAME’s scientific journal ATLA, Dr Robert Combes and Professor Michael Balls look at statements made by Public Health England (PHE) regarding the potential harm from e-cigarettes, compared with smoking tobacco products.

PHE has stated […]

January 13th, 2016|News|Comments Off

1991 – LD50 test banned

The highly controversial Median Lethal Dose Test, or LD50, was developed by J. W. Trevan in 1927 as a means to determine characteristics in acute toxicity. However, due to the necessity to terminate large numbers of test subjects as a requisite of the test it received heavy criticism. In 1991 the UK Government decided upon […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_legislation|Comments Off

Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

Commercially available artificial human skin models developed in the early 1990s provided an extremely useful alternative for researchers studying in vitro skin corrosion and irritation, as well as topical responses and phototoxicity.  Prior to the development of models such as EpiSkin, EpiDerm, EST1000, and Living Skin Equivalent (LHE), in vivo tests on either human or animals subjects were […]

July 14th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1989 – replacement for the Draize eye irritation test

Devised in 1944 by FDA toxicologist John Draize, the Draize eye irritation test was developed as an acute toxicology test for cosmetic compounds. An extremely invasive procedure, it involves the application of 0.5ml or 0.5g of a test substance to the eye of a conscious, restrained animal – commonly albino rabbits.  Before 1989, no alternative to […]

March 13th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off