timeline

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2015 – Turkey bans cosmetics tests on animals

Turkey joined the growing group of countries who banned cosmetics testing on animals.  As well as the Europe-wide ban, animal testing is also banned in Israel, Norway and India. The country’s Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Administration added an additional article to its new regulation regarding the cosmetics industry banning animal testing for cosmetic products. The [...]

September 14th, 2015|Timeline|Comments Off on 2015 – Turkey bans cosmetics tests on animals

1987 – FRAME develops Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test

FRAME researchers in the late 80s worked to produce effective methods for detecting cytotoxicity.  One of the most prevalent and most widely accepted tests developed was the Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test via a collaboration of laboratories from the University of Nottingham medical school, the Huntingdon Research Centre, the St. George's Medical School, and the Robens [...]

March 12th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1987 – FRAME develops Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test

1978 – Home Office publishes first edition of their annual report on the Statistics of experiments on living animals in Great Britain

1978 was an important year for understanding the frequency and application of animals used in experiments in Great Britain.  It was the first year in which the Home Office made public the national statistics regarding things such as the species used, the primary purpose of the study, use of anaesthesia, and licensing, amongst others.  The [...]

January 23rd, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives, TL_legislation, TL_Social|Comments Off on 1978 – Home Office publishes first edition of their annual report on the Statistics of experiments on living animals in Great Britain

1994 Visible Human Project

The Visible Human Project is a collection of medical images which together offer a detailed, three-dimensional representation of normal male and female human bodies. It was created using two donated cadavers that have been preserved, scanned and sectioned, then recorded using transverse CT, MR and cryosection images. It has been carried out by the US [...]

December 5th, 2014|Timeline|Comments Off on 1994 Visible Human Project

1980 – First Transgenic Mouse

Genetic manipulation is a powerful tool that many researchers employ to study the effects, consequences, and cause of many biologic phenomena.  The ability to alter the genome provides levels of control that are not possible in other research techniques.  However, more often than not, it is scientifically and ethically immoral to carry out such studies [...]

October 2nd, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1980 – First Transgenic Mouse

1983 – Polymerase Chain Reaction developed

Since its original development by American biochemist Kary Mullis in 1983, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has become one of the most widely used and important technologies in molecular biology.  The ability for researchers to target a specific section of DNA and recreate multiple copies of identical sequences provides an invaluable tool for a variety [...]

July 25th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1983 – Polymerase Chain Reaction developed

2013 – Cosmetics testing on animals banned in EU

March 2013 saw the European Union pass a full ban on the sale of any and all cosmetic products that had been tested on animals. This was the result of over a decade’s work from alternatives organizations and governments in cooperation with cosmetics companies to prevent the distribution of unregulated and unethical products. This highlights [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_legislation|Comments Off on 2013 – Cosmetics testing on animals banned in EU

2010 – Organ-on-a-chip technology introduced

One of the most substantial modern breakthroughs in alternatives research came from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University in the form of the ‘organ-on-a-chip’ model in 2010. Scientists at the Institute have successfully produced a small silicon chip, no more than a few square inches, containing isolated living cells and tissues [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 2010 – Organ-on-a-chip technology introduced

2010 – European Union agrees on Directive 63/2010/EU

Europe-wide regulation of animals used for scientific purposes made a significant advancement with the adoption of Directive 63/2010/EU in September of 2010. The new directive improved on the previous one, Directive 86/609/EEC, by removing many of the discrepancies in protocols between European nations that often lead to quite obviously varying levels of protection for the [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_legislation|Comments Off on 2010 – European Union agrees on Directive 63/2010/EU

2000s – Significant advancements in real-time 3D imaging

Medical imaging took a noteworthy step forward with the introduction of the capacity for 3-dimensional imagery during the early 2000’s. Enhanced computer software and imaging devices, such as the CT, PET, and MRI scans have provided researchers the ability to view target areas with exceptional levels of detail further reducing the necessity for vivisection. 3D [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 2000s – Significant advancements in real-time 3D imaging