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1991 – Formation of ECVAM

In 1991 the European Union conceptualised the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and, under the stewardship of Michael Balls, became an operational research unit in 1992. Based in Ispra, Italy ECVAM’s ‘main goal is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

1969 – FRAME founded

FRAME was founded and registered as a charity in 1969 by Dorothy Hegarty in Wimbledon, London. Since then, FRAME has moved to its current office in Nottingham in 1981 and established the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory at the University of Nottingham in 1991. The first issue of FRAME’s peer-reviewed international science journal Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ALTA) […]

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1875 – First anti-vivisection organisation in the UK

As the 19th Century progressed, awareness of the controversy surrounding animal testing extended from academic communities into public opinion. Civilian protests, public debates and general uneasiness spread as more knowledge of the conditions, cruelty, and procedures experimental animals were being exposed to was revealed. The first group to rally around the anti-vivisection cause was the National Anti-vivisection […]

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1800s – Claude Bernard

The 19th Century French physiologist Claude Bernard, hailed as one of history’s prominent scientists, contributed to numerous fields of research, including originating the concept of homeostasis and the notion of  ‘blinding’ experiments. He was also an avid vivisectionist whose discoveries would help advance knowledge of the digestive system, the workings of the pancreas and liver, as […]

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1655 – Edmund O’Meera: Unnatural State

The first public questioning of the validity of vivisection on medical grounds occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries. Notably, the Irish physician Edmund O’Meara who stated that ‘the miserable torture of vivisection places the body in an unnatural state’…wherein…’all the juices are brought to flow together’ thus contradicting the results of the experimentation. This […]

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130-216 – Galen of Rome: Exploratory Surgery

During the height of the Roman Empire it became clear to ancient physicians that in order to better understand how natural systems work; they must be studied in their living states. That is, through the process of vivisection, from the Latin words vivus (living) and sectio (cutting), researchers would have to operate on living animals […]

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Locating the Middle Ground

A ‘middle ground’ exists, where the advocates and the opponents of vivisection can usefully negotiate, but where exactly is it? Discussions on the use of animals in scientific and medical experiments often attract extreme points of view where two opposing sides appear to be intractable and no possibility of compromise exists. But there are many […]

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