in vitro

2000- 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Assay

In vitro phototoxicity tests measure skin irritation responses to agents without the need for an immune response.  This is accomplished by comparing the capacity for cell cultures to display a dye that is visible under UVA light in the presence or absence of the cytotoxic compound in question.  Such tests replace the need to test substances […]

June 26th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

Commercially available artificial human skin models developed in the early 1990s provided an extremely useful alternative for researchers studying in vitro skin corrosion and irritation, as well as topical responses and phototoxicity.  Prior to the development of models such as EpiSkin, EpiDerm, EST1000, and Living Skin Equivalent (LHE), in vivo tests on either human or animals subjects were […]

July 14th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1907 – Harrison grows from nerve cells by ‘hanging drop’ technique

The turn of the century witnessed an influx of cell culture in experimentation. However, few of the advancements made were as pivotal as the work conducted by Ross Granville Harrison at Johns Hopkins University in 1907. To this point, in vitro work had become quite good at observing organic tissue microscopically, however, attempts to manipulate […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1885 – Roux maintains embryonic chick cells in saline solution

The groundwork for modern tissue culture was established in 1885 by German Wilhelm Roux. An embryologist who studied developmental mechanics, Roux was curious about the evolutionary machinery at the cellular level. Roux’s work to isolate the medullary plate (a key structure in the developing nervous system) of a chicken embryo and sustain the cells’ viability […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1677 – van Leeuwenhoek’s early work on microscopy validated

Dutchman Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s ground-breaking early work on microscopy and observations of single-celled organisms has him fondly referred to as the ‘Father of Microbiology’. A talented lens-maker and passionate naturalist, Leeuwenhoek pioneered the process of identifying microscopic organisms under his own hand-crafted microscopes. He referred to his findings as animaluculs. This paved the way for […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off