alternatives

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FRAME’s new Director

FRAME has appointed a new Director to oversee its research programme at the Nottingham office. Dr Gerry Kenna is a drug safety scientist with extensive industrial safety assessment experience, including 11 years in the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that he had a highly successful academic career. He is recognised nationally and internationally in the field [...]

October 6th, 2014|Press, Rightbox|Comments Off on FRAME’s new Director

1980 – First Transgenic Mouse

Genetic manipulation is a powerful tool that many researchers employ to study the effects, consequences, and cause of many biologic phenomena.  The ability to alter the genome provides levels of control that are not possible in other research techniques.  However, more often than not, it is scientifically and ethically immoral to carry out such studies [...]

October 2nd, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1980 – First Transgenic Mouse

FRAME attends Prague World Congress

FRAME staff and Trustees, and post-graduates from the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory took part in the ninth World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, in Prague, Czech Republic. Two posters featuring FRAME research were displayed. One was by FRAME Scientific Officer Kevin Coll, on the rise in use of genetically modified (GM) [...]

September 3rd, 2014|News|Comments Off on FRAME attends Prague World Congress

1983 – Polymerase Chain Reaction developed

Since its original development by American biochemist Kary Mullis in 1983, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has become one of the most widely used and important technologies in molecular biology.  The ability for researchers to target a specific section of DNA and recreate multiple copies of identical sequences provides an invaluable tool for a variety [...]

July 25th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1983 – Polymerase Chain Reaction developed

Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

Commercially available artificial human skin models developed in the early 1990s provided an extremely useful alternative for researchers studying in vitro skin corrosion and irritation, as well as topical responses and phototoxicity.  Prior to the development of models such as EpiSkin, EpiDerm, EST1000, and Living Skin Equivalent (LHE), in vivo tests on either human or animals subjects were [...]

July 14th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

GM Mice

The use of genetically modified mice is increasing. This study is an investigation of the driving forces behind the rise in numbers of genetically modified (GM) mice in laboratories.  Study of trends in the use of GM mice and their efficacy as a model for human disease. Inquiry into the scope of the areas of research, the [...]

June 26th, 2014|Research|Comments Off on GM Mice

2010 – Organ-on-a-chip technology introduced

One of the most substantial modern breakthroughs in alternatives research came from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University in the form of the ‘organ-on-a-chip’ model in 2010. Scientists at the Institute have successfully produced a small silicon chip, no more than a few square inches, containing isolated living cells and tissues [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 2010 – Organ-on-a-chip technology introduced

2000s – Significant advancements in real-time 3D imaging

Medical imaging took a noteworthy step forward with the introduction of the capacity for 3-dimensional imagery during the early 2000’s. Enhanced computer software and imaging devices, such as the CT, PET, and MRI scans have provided researchers the ability to view target areas with exceptional levels of detail further reducing the necessity for vivisection. 3D [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 2000s – Significant advancements in real-time 3D imaging

2000s – Human Genome Project successfully maps human DNA

In June 2006 it was announced that the first working draft of the full human DNA sequence had been released by the Human Genome Project. In the years following researchers all over the world have used this resource to gain insight into a number of fields while reducing the need for animal testing. By studying [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 2000s – Human Genome Project successfully maps human DNA

1996 – First successful mammal cloning – Dolly the Sheep

In July 1996, the Roslin Institute of the University of Edinburgh accomplished one of the greatest and most controversial feats in modern science with the successful cloning of a mammalian adult cell. Dolly the sheep would be the first mammal born via the process of somatic cell transfer and would provide insight into the possibilities [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1996 – First successful mammal cloning – Dolly the Sheep