alternative

2010 – Organ-on-a-chip technology introduced

One of the most substantial modern breakthroughs in alternatives research came from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University in the form of the ‘organ-on-a-chip’ model in 2010. Scientists at the Institute have successfully produced a small silicon chip, no more than a few square inches, containing isolated living cells and tissues […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

2000- 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Assay

In vitro phototoxicity tests measure skin irritation responses to agents without the need for an immune response.  This is accomplished by comparing the capacity for cell cultures to display a dye that is visible under UVA light in the presence or absence of the cytotoxic compound in question.  Such tests replace the need to test substances […]

June 26th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

2000s – Significant advancements in real-time 3D imaging

Medical imaging took a noteworthy step forward with the introduction of the capacity for 3-dimensional imagery during the early 2000’s. Enhanced computer software and imaging devices, such as the CT, PET, and MRI scans have provided researchers the ability to view target areas with exceptional levels of detail further reducing the necessity for vivisection. 3D […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

2000s – Human Genome Project successfully maps human DNA

In June 2006 it was announced that the first working draft of the full human DNA sequence had been released by the Human Genome Project. In the years following researchers all over the world have used this resource to gain insight into a number of fields while reducing the need for animal testing. By studying […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1996 – First successful cloning of a mammal – Dolly

In July 1996, the Roslin Institute of the University of Edinburgh accomplished one of the greatest and most controversial feats in modern science with the successful cloning of a mammalian adult cell. Dolly the sheep would be the first mammal born via the process of somatic cell transfer and would provide insight into the possibilities […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

Commercially available artificial human skin models developed in the early 1990s provided an extremely useful alternative for researchers studying in vitro skin corrosion and irritation, as well as topical responses and phototoxicity.  Prior to the development of models such as EpiSkin, EpiDerm, EST1000, and Living Skin Equivalent (LHE), in vivo tests on either human or animals subjects were […]

July 14th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1980s – Development of various computer models

The 1980s saw a huge drive towards the use of computer simulation and modelling software to reduce or replace the need for live animals in testing. The capacity for computers to help in diagnosing, imagery, recording, statistical analysis, and simulation provides researchers with a tool to greatly improve the efficiency, speed, and use of animals […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1980s – CR, MRI, and colour Doppler ultrasound imaging developed

Major advancements in medical imagery took place in the 1980s with the advent of Computer Radiology, Medical Resonance Imaging, and Colour Doppler ultrasound. Each technology varies in its conception and applications, yet all would prove pivotal in the movement towards non-invasive techniques for diagnosis, surgery, and drug testing.

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1978 – Synthetic production of human insulin

Prior to 1978, insulin for human use was purified from animal sources, commonly pigs or dogs. It was the work conducted by researchers at Genentech and City of Hope Medical Research Centre that would provide the progression away from the necessity for animals to produce insulin by successfully synthesising ‘human-insulin’. By editing the DNA of […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1978 – First human stem cells discovered

Stem cell research shifted to humans in 1978 when Dr Gregor Pindull published findings of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in human cord blood. Previous work had been able to identify similar cells in other mammalian species. This was the first observation of human stem cells that would give rise to similar cells and signalled an […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off