1977

1977 – First alternatives developed for skin irritants

Prior to 1977, tests for epidermal responses to substances were carried out primarily on animals, which generally produced misleading results. In order to effectively, and safely, investigate reactions in human subjects Griffith and Buehler developed the ‘repeated-insult patch test’. By concentrating and localising samples of the substance to a small, confined grid of 12mm, researchers […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1677 – van Leeuwenhoek’s early work on microscopy validated

Dutchman Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s ground-breaking early work on microscopy and observations of single-celled organisms has him fondly referred to as the ‘Father of Microbiology’. A talented lens-maker and passionate naturalist, Leeuwenhoek pioneered the process of identifying microscopic organisms under his own hand-crafted microscopes. He referred to his findings as animaluculs. This paved the way for […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off