The use of human cell line reporter gene-based assays in chemical toxicity testing
Scrivens, M. Bhogal, N.
Toxicology in Vitro, 21, 1233-1240 (2007)
Genetically modified rodents allow greater sensitivity in monitoring DNA damage or gene expression than traditional rodent bioassays and have become increasingly used for toxicity testing, particularly with the greater availability of protein and DNA-based toxicity biomarkers. Here, the advantages and limitations of several in vitro reporter assays already used to study the mechanisms of toxicity are discussed in relation to the in vivo traditional and reporter-based bioassays for carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, endocrine changes and inflammation endpoints to examine the scope for refining and replacing transgenic in vivo models.