OECD Test Guidelines for Non Animal Tests
The OECD is responsible for accepting validated methods into the regulatory testing framework
The processes leading to the validation of a method involve research laboratories and European, US and Japanese centres for the validation of alternative methods, namely ECVAM (EU), ICCVAM (US) and JaCVAM (Japan), working together to develop, validate and peer-review methods before they are presented for approval by the EU and, ultimately, by the OECD.
FRAME and the FRAME Alternatives laboratory are involved in method development, evaluation and peer-review
The OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) produce a series of Test Guidelines (TGs) for the testing of chemicals.
These are internationally agreed test methods, used by governments, industry and independent laboratories to determine the safety of chemicals and chemical preparations.
This series of tests cover physico-chemical properties, human health effects, environmental effects and degradation and accumulation in the environment.
Of most concern to FRAME are those TGs which involve the use of live animals/fish.
Over the years, a number of non-animal TGs have been approved which, either fully replace or partially replace the need for animal tests for certain endpoints.
A number of other TGs have been approved or existing TGs updated to reduce or refine animal use.
OECD TGs which do not involve the use of live vertabrate animals are generally found in the areas of dermal toxicity and mutagenicity testing (see below).
The following methods are used to improve the quality of risk assessment without recourse to using additional animal tests. They are not direct replacements of animal tests, with the exception of the in vitro skin corrosion tests that are partially able to replace Draize testing in rabbits.
TG 428: In vitro Skin Absorption link to TG 428
TG 430: In vitro Skin Corrosion (Transcutaneous Electrical Resistance Test) link to TG 430
TG 435: In vitro Membrane Barrier Test for Skin Corrosion link to TG 435
The following methods help to reduce the overall numbers of animals used in mutagenicity testing. They are used before animal tests, to identify chemicals and substances that are least likely to cause DNA damage in humans.
TG 471: Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test (Ames) link to TG 471
TG 473: In vitro Mammalian Chromosomal Abberation Test link to TG 473
TG 476: In vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test link to TG 476
TG 477: Genetic Toxicity: Sex-linked Recessive Lethal Test in Drosphilia Melanogaster link to TG 477
TG 479: Genetic Toxicity: In vitro Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay in Mammalian Cells link to TG 479
TG 480: Genetic Toxicity: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gene Mutation Assay link to TG 480
TG 481: Genetic Toxicity: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mitotic Recombination Assay link to TG 481
TG 482: Genetic Toxicity: DNA Damage and Repair, Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Mammalian Cells In Vitro link to TG 482