Procedures that can replace the need for animal experiments, reduce the number of animals required, or diminish the amount of pain or distress suffered by animals necessarily used. (See Three Rs)
Substances that relieve pain (e.g. paracetamol)
Animals used in experiments to represent either humans or other animals (e.g. rats with high blood pressure may be used to try to learn more about the condition in humans).
Use in tests or experiments of animals that are protected by law.
Specified how and where animals can be used for scientific research and testing, and also requires that scientists using animals must provide yearly reports for the British Government.
Specialised proteins produced by white blood cells in response to the introduction of a ‘foreign’ substance (antigen) into the body. The antibodies have the ability to recognise specific antigens and to bind to them very tightly.
A missile, bomb, or other device that delivers harmful biological agents such as bacteria or viruses.
An irreversible end of the integrated functioning of the entire brain.
Maintenance of living cells outside the body (See in vitro).
Part of the nucleus of a cell that carries the genes.
The signs of a disease that a doctor, vet or scientist can see.
Genetically identical cell, organ or organism produced by asexual reproduction. (Such as plant cuttings.)
The process of producing large numbers of genetically identical cells from a single cell. All of the cells of a clone produce exactly the same antibody.
Molecules that cause effects both locally and throughout the body.
(deoxyribonucleic acid) – Large molecule that acts as the hereditary material by carrying information coding for all the characteristics and functions of an organism.
How effectively a substance produces the desired result.
Investigations to discover something new or prove an idea
Devising an order and method of working for an experiment.
A portion of DNA that occupies a particular position on a chromosome and helps determine an organism’s characteristics.
Changing animals, by inserting, mutating or deleting genes or parts of chromosomes.
The genetic make-up of an organism. A group of organisms with the same genetic constitution.
The process by which information from a gene is used in the organism.
Showing concern for animal well-being.
Complex system involving protective cells, tissues and organs in the body, which specifically recognise and destroy foreign organisms which otherwise could cause harm.
Antibody-based methods that allow the measurement of very small quantities of substances, such as cytokines or hormones, in blood samples.
Having an impaired immune system and therefore incapable of an effective immune response. This is often caused by disease.
Genetically similar animals, produced as a result of the repeated mating of closely related animals. (See Outbred strain)
Substances that are used to make a finished product.
Experiments or predictions carried out using a computer. (See in vivo, in vitro)
‘In glass’ experiments carried out outside the body of an animal, in for example a test tube or culture dish. In vitro research is generally referred to as the manipulation of organs, tissues, cells, and biomolecules in a controlled, artificial environment. (See in vivo, in silico)
The characterisation and analysis of biomolecules and biological systems using intact organisms. (See in vitro, in silico)
Reversible damage to tissues, such as the eye and skin, causing redness and soreness.
Magnetoencephalography: brain imaging technique which detects signals given out by the brain when a person is awake and records them as an image on a computer.
Chemical and physical processes within the body that alter a chemical.
Genetically nonidentical animals, produced by breeding at random or selecting parents that are not closely related. (See inbred strain)
A progressive nervous disease occurring most often after the age of 50, linked with the destruction of brain cells that produce dopamine. Symptoms include muscular tremor, slow movement, partial facial paralysis, strange posture and weakness.
The physical and biochemical characteristics of an organism determined by the interaction of its genetic constitution and the environment.
Techniques that enable researchers to use fewer animals in their experiments while gaining at least as much information.
Refinement techniques reduce the amount of pain and distress caused to laboratory animals to an absolute minimum.
Replacement alternatives can be defined as methods, strategies and techniques, such as cell culture, that do not require live animals.
Reduction, Refinement and Replacement, as alternatives to the conventional use of animals in laboratory-based research.
Level of poisonousness; potential to cause harm
The study of poisons and their effects.
Taking tissue or a whole organ, such as a kidney, from a donor individual and surgically introducing it into the body of a patient to replace a defective tissue or organ.
Literally “after death”. An examination of a dead body to discover the cause of death.
A test or experiment.
Vertebrates (i.e. animals with backbones), other than humans, from half way through their development in the womb (mammals) or egg (birds and reptiles), or when they are able to feed by themselves (amphibians and fish)
Able to feel pain and suffer.
Carrying out surgical experiments on living animals
Transplanting organs from one species into another.