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1993 – First World Congress

The first World Congress on Alternatives & Animal Use in the Life Sciences was held in Baltimore, Maryland, sponsored by CAAT (The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing) It remains the primary international scientific conference series dedicated to the 3Rs.

Further Congress meetings were held approximately every two years in  Utrecht, Netherlands;  Rome, Italy; Berlin, […]

June 19th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

1991 – Formation of ECVAM

In 1991 the European Union conceptualised the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and, under the stewardship of Michael Balls, became an operational research unit in 1992. Based in Ispra, Italy ECVAM’s ‘main goal is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

1981 – CAAT founded

In 1981 the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland founded its Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) as part of the University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Its aim is to promote humane science by supporting the creation, development, validation, and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education. We seek […]

June 19th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

1969 – FRAME founded

FRAME was founded and registered as a charity in 1969 by Dorothy Hegarty in Wimbledon, London. Since then, FRAME has moved to its current office in Nottingham in 1981 and established the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory at the University of Nottingham in 1991. The first issue of FRAME’s peer-reviewed international science journal Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ALTA) […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

1959 – Russell and Burch publish The Principles

The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique written by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in 1959 is arguably the most influential moment in alternatives to the use of animals in experimentation history. Although it had little impact when it was first published, the book, and the concepts introduced by Russell and Burch, would prove to be exceptionally important […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

1875 – First anti-vivisection organisation in the UK

As the 19th Century progressed, awareness of the controversy surrounding animal testing extended from academic communities into public opinion. Civilian protests, public debates and general uneasiness spread as more knowledge of the conditions, cruelty, and procedures experimental animals were being exposed to was revealed. The first group to rally around the anti-vivisection cause was the National Anti-vivisection […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

1800s – Claude Bernard

The 19th Century French physiologist Claude Bernard, hailed as one of history’s prominent scientists, contributed to numerous fields of research, including originating the concept of homeostasis and the notion of  ‘blinding’ experiments. He was also an avid vivisectionist whose discoveries would help advance knowledge of the digestive system, the workings of the pancreas and liver, as […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

1655 – Edmund O’Meera: Unnatural State

The first public questioning of the validity of vivisection on medical grounds occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries. Notably, the Irish physician Edmund O’Meara who stated that ‘the miserable torture of vivisection places the body in an unnatural state’…wherein…’all the juices are brought to flow together’ thus contradicting the results of the experimentation. This […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off

130-216 – Galen of Rome: Exploratory Surgery

During the height of the Roman Empire it became clear to ancient physicians that in order to better understand how natural systems work; they must be studied in their living states. That is, through the process of vivisection, from the Latin words vivus (living) and sectio (cutting), researchers would have to operate on living animals […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off