TL_Alternatives

1978 – First human stem cells discovered

Stem cell research shifted to humans in 1978 when Dr Gregor Pindull published findings of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in human cord blood. Previous work had been able to identify similar cells in other mammalian species. This was the first observation of human stem cells that would give rise to similar cells and signalled an […]

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1977 – First alternatives developed for skin irritants

Prior to 1977, tests for epidermal responses to substances were carried out primarily on animals, which generally produced misleading results. In order to effectively, and safely, investigate reactions in human subjects Griffith and Buehler developed the ‘repeated-insult patch test’. By concentrating and localising samples of the substance to a small, confined grid of 12mm, researchers […]

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1960 – First use of video to replace live animals in education

In 1960 the University of California produced a seven minute instructional video for students demonstrating the steps of anaphylaxis using a single guinea pig. Although the video depicts the full anaphylactic process, ultimately resulting in fatality, the use of video technology provided the University with the opportunity to save dozens of guinea pigs that would have […]

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1907 – Harrison grows from nerve cells by ‘hanging drop’ technique

The turn of the century witnessed an influx of cell culture in experimentation. However, few of the advancements made were as pivotal as the work conducted by Ross Granville Harrison at Johns Hopkins University in 1907. To this point, in vitro work had become quite good at observing organic tissue microscopically, however, attempts to manipulate […]

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1895 – Discovery of X-rays

German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen is recognised as the first individual to study the properties of X-rays in 1895. Roughly a decade later, X-rays would be adopted as a medical tool to non-invasively observe patients. The ability to study a subject without the need for vivisection provided an important new alternate methodology to many animal studies. […]

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1885 – Roux maintains embryonic chick cells in saline solution

The groundwork for modern tissue culture was established in 1885 by German Wilhelm Roux. An embryologist who studied developmental mechanics, Roux was curious about the evolutionary machinery at the cellular level. Roux’s work to isolate the medullary plate (a key structure in the developing nervous system) of a chicken embryo and sustain the cells’ viability […]

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1677 – van Leeuwenhoek’s early work on microscopy validated

Dutchman Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s ground-breaking early work on microscopy and observations of single-celled organisms has him fondly referred to as the ‘Father of Microbiology’. A talented lens-maker and passionate naturalist, Leeuwenhoek pioneered the process of identifying microscopic organisms under his own hand-crafted microscopes. He referred to his findings as animaluculs. This paved the way for […]

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