TL_Alternatives

1980s – Development of various computer models

The 1980s saw a huge drive towards the use of computer simulation and modelling software to reduce or replace the need for live animals in testing. The capacity for computers to help in diagnosing, imagery, recording, statistical analysis, and simulation provides researchers with a tool to greatly improve the efficiency, speed, and use of animals […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1980s – CR, MRI, and colour Doppler ultrasound imaging developed

Major advancements in medical imagery took place in the 1980s with the advent of Computer Radiology, Medical Resonance Imaging, and Colour Doppler ultrasound. Each technology varies in its conception and applications, yet all would prove pivotal in the movement towards non-invasive techniques for diagnosis, surgery, and drug testing.

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1978 – Synthetic production of human insulin

Prior to 1978, insulin for human use was purified from animal sources, commonly pigs or dogs. It was the work conducted by researchers at Genentech and City of Hope Medical Research Centre that would provide the progression away from the necessity for animals to produce insulin by successfully synthesising ‘human-insulin’. By editing the DNA of […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1978 – First human stem cells discovered

Stem cell research shifted to humans in 1978 when Dr Gregor Pindull published findings of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in human cord blood. Previous work had been able to identify similar cells in other mammalian species. This was the first observation of human stem cells that would give rise to similar cells and signalled an […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1978 – Home Office publishes first edition of their annual report on the Statistics of experiments on living animals in Great Britain

1978 was an important year for understanding the frequency and application of animals used in experiments in Great Britain.  It was the first year in which the Home Office made public the national statistics regarding things such as the species used, the primary purpose of the study, use of anaesthesia, and licensing, amongst others.  The […]

January 23rd, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives, TL_legislation, TL_Social|Comments Off

1977 – First alternatives developed for skin irritants

Prior to 1977, tests for epidermal responses to substances were carried out primarily on animals, which generally produced misleading results. In order to effectively, and safely, investigate reactions in human subjects Griffith and Buehler developed the ‘repeated-insult patch test’. By concentrating and localising samples of the substance to a small, confined grid of 12mm, researchers […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1960 – First use of video to replace live animals in education

In 1960 the University of California produced a seven minute instructional video for students demonstrating the steps of anaphylaxis using a single guinea pig. Although the video depicts the full anaphylactic process, ultimately resulting in fatality, the use of video technology provided the University with the opportunity to save dozens of guinea pigs that would have […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1907 – Harrison grows from nerve cells by ‘hanging drop’ technique

The turn of the century witnessed an influx of cell culture in experimentation. However, few of the advancements made were as pivotal as the work conducted by Ross Granville Harrison at Johns Hopkins University in 1907. To this point, in vitro work had become quite good at observing organic tissue microscopically, however, attempts to manipulate […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1895 – Discovery of X-rays

German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen is recognised as the first individual to study the properties of X-rays in 1895. Roughly a decade later, X-rays would be adopted as a medical tool to non-invasively observe patients. The ability to study a subject without the need for vivisection provided an important new alternate methodology to many animal studies. […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1885 – Roux maintains embryonic chick cells in saline solution

The groundwork for modern tissue culture was established in 1885 by German Wilhelm Roux. An embryologist who studied developmental mechanics, Roux was curious about the evolutionary machinery at the cellular level. Roux’s work to isolate the medullary plate (a key structure in the developing nervous system) of a chicken embryo and sustain the cells’ viability […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off