2010 – Organ-on-a-chip technology introduced

One of the most substantial modern breakthroughs in alternatives research came from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University in the form of the ‘organ-on-a-chip’ model in 2010. Scientists at the Institute have successfully produced a small silicon chip, no more than a few square inches, containing isolated living cells and tissues […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

2000- 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Assay

In vitro phototoxicity tests measure skin irritation responses to agents without the need for an immune response.  This is accomplished by comparing the capacity for cell cultures to display a dye that is visible under UVA light in the presence or absence of the cytotoxic compound in question.  Such tests replace the need to test substances […]

June 26th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

2000s – Significant advancements in real-time 3D imaging

Medical imaging took a noteworthy step forward with the introduction of the capacity for 3-dimensional imagery during the early 2000’s. Enhanced computer software and imaging devices, such as the CT, PET, and MRI scans have provided researchers the ability to view target areas with exceptional levels of detail further reducing the necessity for vivisection. 3D […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

2000s – Human Genome Project successfully maps human DNA

In June 2006 it was announced that the first working draft of the full human DNA sequence had been released by the Human Genome Project. In the years following researchers all over the world have used this resource to gain insight into a number of fields while reducing the need for animal testing. By studying […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1996 – First successful mammal cloning – Dolly the Sheep

In July 1996, the Roslin Institute of the University of Edinburgh accomplished one of the greatest and most controversial feats in modern science with the successful cloning of a mammalian adult cell. Dolly the sheep would be the first mammal born via the process of somatic cell transfer and would provide insight into the possibilities […]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1991 – FRAME Alternatives Laboratory founded

The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) was opened in 1991 as part of the University of Nottingham’s medical school housed in the Queen’s Medical Centre.  Under the direction of Dr Richard Clothier, the FAL established itself as a leading laboratory for alternatives research.  This tradition has continued under Dr Andrew Bennett who replaced Dr Clothier in […]

January 29th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

Commercially available artificial human skin models developed in the early 1990s provided an extremely useful alternative for researchers studying in vitro skin corrosion and irritation, as well as topical responses and phototoxicity.  Prior to the development of models such as EpiSkin, EpiDerm, EST1000, and Living Skin Equivalent (LHE), in vivo tests on either human or animals subjects were […]

July 14th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1989 – replacement for the Draize eye irritation test

Devised in 1944 by FDA toxicologist John Draize, the Draize eye irritation test was developed as an acute toxicology test for cosmetic compounds. An extremely invasive procedure, it involves the application of 0.5ml or 0.5g of a test substance to the eye of a conscious, restrained animal – commonly albino rabbits.  Before 1989, no alternative to […]

March 13th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1987 – FRAME develops Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test

FRAME researchers in the late 80s worked to produce effective methods for detecting cytotoxicity.  One of the most prevalent and most widely accepted tests developed was the Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test via a collaboration of laboratories from the University of Nottingham medical school, the Huntingdon Research Centre, the St. George’s Medical School, and the Robens […]

March 12th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off

1983 – ATLA launched

In 1983 FRAME launched its own peer-reviewed international scientific journal – Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA).  The journal publishes articles with a focus on the latest research in the development, validation, introduction and use of alternatives to laboratory animals.  Additionally, ATLA encourages informed scientific debate through its editorial and comment section.   ATLA is published […]

January 29th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off