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1989 – replacement for the Draize eye irritation test

Devised in 1944 by FDA toxicologist John Draize, the Draize eye irritation test was developed as an acute toxicology test for cosmetic compounds. An extremely invasive procedure, it involves the application of 0.5ml or 0.5g of a test substance to the eye of a conscious, restrained animal - commonly albino rabbits.  Before 1989, no alternative to [...]

March 13th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1989 – replacement for the Draize eye irritation test

1987 – FRAME develops Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test

FRAME researchers in the late 80s worked to produce effective methods for detecting cytotoxicity.  One of the most prevalent and most widely accepted tests developed was the Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test via a collaboration of laboratories from the University of Nottingham medical school, the Huntingdon Research Centre, the St. George's Medical School, and the Robens [...]

March 12th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1987 – FRAME develops Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test

1983 – ATLA launched

In 1983 FRAME launched its own peer-reviewed international scientific journal - Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA).  The journal publishes articles with a focus on the latest research in the development, validation, introduction and use of alternatives to laboratory animals.  Additionally, ATLA encourages informed scientific debate through its editorial and comment section.   ATLA is published [...]

January 29th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1983 – ATLA launched

1991 – FRAME Alternatives Laboratory founded

The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) was opened in 1991 as part of the University of Nottingham's medical school housed in the Queen's Medical Centre.  Under the direction of Dr Richard Clothier, the FAL established itself as a leading laboratory for alternatives research.  This tradition has continued under Dr Andrew Bennett who replaced Dr Clothier in [...]

January 29th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1991 – FRAME Alternatives Laboratory founded

1978 – Home Office publishes first edition of their annual report on the Statistics of experiments on living animals in Great Britain

1978 was an important year for understanding the frequency and application of animals used in experiments in Great Britain.  It was the first year in which the Home Office made public the national statistics regarding things such as the species used, the primary purpose of the study, use of anaesthesia, and licensing, amongst others.  The [...]

January 23rd, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives, TL_legislation, TL_Social|Comments Off on 1978 – Home Office publishes first edition of their annual report on the Statistics of experiments on living animals in Great Britain

1869 – Conceptualisation of Modern Statistics

The pioneering work of British statistician Francis Galton in the late 1860s observing the relative ratios of ‘great men’ within the British populous would set the stage for modern statistical analysis.  His book, Hereditary Genius, tracked the intellectual ability within a set population while simultaneously recording the possible role of genetic transmission of intellectual ability.  [...]

January 19th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives, TL_Social|Comments Off on 1869 – Conceptualisation of Modern Statistics

1980 – First Transgenic Mouse

Genetic manipulation is a powerful tool that many researchers employ to study the effects, consequences, and cause of many biologic phenomena.  The ability to alter the genome provides levels of control that are not possible in other research techniques.  However, more often than not, it is scientifically and ethically immoral to carry out such studies [...]

October 2nd, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1980 – First Transgenic Mouse

1983 – Polymerase Chain Reaction developed

Since its original development by American biochemist Kary Mullis in 1983, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has become one of the most widely used and important technologies in molecular biology.  The ability for researchers to target a specific section of DNA and recreate multiple copies of identical sequences provides an invaluable tool for a variety [...]

July 25th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1983 – Polymerase Chain Reaction developed

Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

Commercially available artificial human skin models developed in the early 1990s provided an extremely useful alternative for researchers studying in vitro skin corrosion and irritation, as well as topical responses and phototoxicity.  Prior to the development of models such as EpiSkin, EpiDerm, EST1000, and Living Skin Equivalent (LHE), in vivo tests on either human or animals subjects were [...]

July 14th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

2000- 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Assay

In vitro phototoxicity tests measure skin irritation responses to agents without the need for an immune response.  This is accomplished by comparing the capacity for cell cultures to display a dye that is visible under UVA light in the presence or absence of the cytotoxic compound in question.  Such tests replace the need to test substances [...]

June 26th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 2000- 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Assay