Timeline

/Timeline

2010 – European Union agrees on Directive 63/2010/EU

Europe-wide regulation of animals used for scientific purposes made a significant advancement with the adoption of Directive 63/2010/EU in September of 2010. The new directive improved on the previous one, Directive 86/609/EEC, by removing many of the discrepancies in protocols between European nations that often lead to quite obviously varying levels of protection for the [...]

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2000s – Significant advancements in real-time 3D imaging

Medical imaging took a noteworthy step forward with the introduction of the capacity for 3-dimensional imagery during the early 2000’s. Enhanced computer software and imaging devices, such as the CT, PET, and MRI scans have provided researchers the ability to view target areas with exceptional levels of detail further reducing the necessity for vivisection. 3D [...]

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2000s – Human Genome Project successfully maps human DNA

In June 2006 it was announced that the first working draft of the full human DNA sequence had been released by the Human Genome Project. In the years following researchers all over the world have used this resource to gain insight into a number of fields while reducing the need for animal testing. By studying [...]

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1996 – First successful mammal cloning – Dolly the Sheep

In July 1996, the Roslin Institute of the University of Edinburgh accomplished one of the greatest and most controversial feats in modern science with the successful cloning of a mammalian adult cell. Dolly the sheep would be the first mammal born via the process of somatic cell transfer and would provide insight into the possibilities [...]

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1991 – Formation of ECVAM

In 1991 the European Union conceptualised the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and, under the stewardship of Michael Balls, became an operational research unit in 1992. Based in Ispra, Italy ECVAM’s ‘main goal is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences [...]

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1991 – LD50 test banned

The highly controversial Median Lethal Dose Test, or LD50, was developed by J. W. Trevan in 1927 as a means to determine characteristics in acute toxicity. However, due to the necessity to terminate large numbers of test subjects as a requisite of the test it received heavy criticism. In 1991 the UK Government decided upon [...]

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1986 – Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act passed in UK

The United Kingdom would take a major step forward in 1986 when it replaced the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1887 with the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act. Distinguishing itself from the original Act, ASPA was implemented to specifically regulate the use of animals for research purposes. Under the direction of the Home Office, ASPA clearly [...]

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1980s – Development of various computer models

The 1980s saw a huge drive towards the use of computer simulation and modelling software to reduce or replace the need for live animals in testing. The capacity for computers to help in diagnosing, imagery, recording, statistical analysis, and simulation provides researchers with a tool to greatly improve the efficiency, speed, and use of animals [...]

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1980s – CR, MRI, and colour Doppler ultrasound imaging developed

Major advancements in medical imagery took place in the 1980s with the advent of Computer Radiology, Medical Resonance Imaging, and Colour Doppler ultrasound. Each technology varies in its conception and applications, yet all would prove pivotal in the movement towards non-invasive techniques for diagnosis, surgery, and drug testing.

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1978 – Synthetic production of human insulin

Prior to 1978, insulin for human use was purified from animal sources, commonly pigs or dogs. It was the work conducted by researchers at Genentech and City of Hope Medical Research Centre that would provide the progression away from the necessity for animals to produce insulin by successfully synthesising ‘human-insulin’. By editing the DNA of [...]

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