1951 – HeLa cells

In 1951, the first human immortal cell line, HeLa, was established and successfully grown in vitro (1). The cells had been isolated from the cervical cancer of a patient called Henrietta Lacks. Up until that point, cells could be maintained in in vitro culture only temporarily. An immortal cell line allowed scientists to perform experiments [...]

November 28th, 2014|Timeline|Comments Off on 1951 – HeLa cells

1980 – First Transgenic Mouse

Genetic manipulation is a powerful tool that many researchers employ to study the effects, consequences, and cause of many biologic phenomena.  The ability to alter the genome provides levels of control that are not possible in other research techniques.  However, more often than not, it is scientifically and ethically immoral to carry out such studies [...]

October 2nd, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1980 – First Transgenic Mouse

1983 – Polymerase Chain Reaction developed

Since its original development by American biochemist Kary Mullis in 1983, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has become one of the most widely used and important technologies in molecular biology.  The ability for researchers to target a specific section of DNA and recreate multiple copies of identical sequences provides an invaluable tool for a variety [...]

July 25th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1983 – Polymerase Chain Reaction developed

Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

Commercially available artificial human skin models developed in the early 1990s provided an extremely useful alternative for researchers studying in vitro skin corrosion and irritation, as well as topical responses and phototoxicity.  Prior to the development of models such as EpiSkin, EpiDerm, EST1000, and Living Skin Equivalent (LHE), in vivo tests on either human or animals subjects were [...]

July 14th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on Early 1990s: First reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) skin model

2000- 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Assay

In vitro phototoxicity tests measure skin irritation responses to agents without the need for an immune response.  This is accomplished by comparing the capacity for cell cultures to display a dye that is visible under UVA light in the presence or absence of the cytotoxic compound in question.  Such tests replace the need to test substances [...]

June 26th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 2000- 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Assay

1993 – First World Congress

The first World Congress on Alternatives & Animal Use in the Life Sciences was held in Baltimore, Maryland, sponsored by CAAT (The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing) It remains the primary international scientific conference series dedicated to the 3Rs. Further Congress meetings were held approximately every two years in  Utrecht, Netherlands;  Rome, Italy; [...]

June 19th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off on 1993 – First World Congress

1981 – CAAT founded

In 1981 the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland founded its Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) as part of the University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Its aim is to promote humane science by supporting the creation, development, validation, and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education. We seek [...]

June 19th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Social|Comments Off on 1981 – CAAT founded

1986 – EU Directive 86/609

EU Directive 86/609 for the protection of animals used for experimentation and other scientific purposes introduced. It included the rule : "An experiment shall not be performed if another scientifically satisfactory method of obtaining the result sought, not entailing the use of an animal, is reasonably and practicably available".

June 19th, 2014|Timeline, TL_legislation|Comments Off on 1986 – EU Directive 86/609

2013 – Cosmetics testing on animals banned in EU

March 2013 saw the European Union pass a full ban on the sale of any and all cosmetic products that had been tested on animals. This was the result of over a decade’s work from alternatives organizations and governments in cooperation with cosmetics companies to prevent the distribution of unregulated and unethical products. This highlights [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_legislation|Comments Off on 2013 – Cosmetics testing on animals banned in EU

2010 – Organ-on-a-chip technology introduced

One of the most substantial modern breakthroughs in alternatives research came from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University in the form of the ‘organ-on-a-chip’ model in 2010. Scientists at the Institute have successfully produced a small silicon chip, no more than a few square inches, containing isolated living cells and tissues [...]

May 27th, 2014|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 2010 – Organ-on-a-chip technology introduced