Timeline

/Timeline

2015 – Turkey bans cosmetics tests on animals

Turkey joined the growing group of countries who banned cosmetics testing on animals.  As well as the Europe-wide ban, animal testing is also banned in Israel, Norway and India. The country’s Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Administration added an additional article to its new regulation regarding the cosmetics industry banning animal testing for cosmetic products. The [...]

September 14th, 2015|Timeline|Comments Off on 2015 – Turkey bans cosmetics tests on animals

1989 – replacement for the Draize eye irritation test

Devised in 1944 by FDA toxicologist John Draize, the Draize eye irritation test was developed as an acute toxicology test for cosmetic compounds. An extremely invasive procedure, it involves the application of 0.5ml or 0.5g of a test substance to the eye of a conscious, restrained animal - commonly albino rabbits.  Before 1989, no alternative to [...]

March 13th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1989 – replacement for the Draize eye irritation test

1987 – FRAME develops Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test

FRAME researchers in the late 80s worked to produce effective methods for detecting cytotoxicity.  One of the most prevalent and most widely accepted tests developed was the Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test via a collaboration of laboratories from the University of Nottingham medical school, the Huntingdon Research Centre, the St. George's Medical School, and the Robens [...]

March 12th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1987 – FRAME develops Kenacid Blue (KB) cytotoxicity test

1983 – ATLA launched

In 1983 FRAME launched its own peer-reviewed international scientific journal - Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA).  The journal publishes articles with a focus on the latest research in the development, validation, introduction and use of alternatives to laboratory animals.  Additionally, ATLA encourages informed scientific debate through its editorial and comment section.   ATLA is published [...]

January 29th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1983 – ATLA launched

1991 – FRAME Alternatives Laboratory founded

The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) was opened in 1991 as part of the University of Nottingham's medical school housed in the Queen's Medical Centre.  Under the direction of Dr Richard Clothier, the FAL established itself as a leading laboratory for alternatives research.  This tradition has continued under Dr Andrew Bennett who replaced Dr Clothier in [...]

January 29th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives|Comments Off on 1991 – FRAME Alternatives Laboratory founded

2007- REACH guidelines introduced

In 2007 the European Union consolidated numerous regulations and doctrine from its member states regarding the use of chemicals into one directive.  The REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and restriction of Chemicals) guidelines’ objective is to protect both human and environmental health while promoting proper trade within the EU as well as alternative methodology.  As a [...]

January 26th, 2015|Timeline, TL_legislation|Comments Off on 2007- REACH guidelines introduced

1978 – Home Office publishes first edition of their annual report on the Statistics of experiments on living animals in Great Britain

1978 was an important year for understanding the frequency and application of animals used in experiments in Great Britain.  It was the first year in which the Home Office made public the national statistics regarding things such as the species used, the primary purpose of the study, use of anaesthesia, and licensing, amongst others.  The [...]

January 23rd, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives, TL_legislation, TL_Social|Comments Off on 1978 – Home Office publishes first edition of their annual report on the Statistics of experiments on living animals in Great Britain

1869 – Conceptualisation of Modern Statistics

The pioneering work of British statistician Francis Galton in the late 1860s observing the relative ratios of ‘great men’ within the British populous would set the stage for modern statistical analysis.  His book, Hereditary Genius, tracked the intellectual ability within a set population while simultaneously recording the possible role of genetic transmission of intellectual ability.  [...]

January 19th, 2015|Timeline, TL_Alternatives, TL_Social|Comments Off on 1869 – Conceptualisation of Modern Statistics

1994 Visible Human Project

The Visible Human Project is a collection of medical images which together offer a detailed, three-dimensional representation of normal male and female human bodies. It was created using two donated cadavers that have been preserved, scanned and sectioned, then recorded using transverse CT, MR and cryosection images. It has been carried out by the US [...]

December 5th, 2014|Timeline|Comments Off on 1994 Visible Human Project

1747 – First controlled medical trial

Scottish surgeon's mate James Lind carried out the first controlled medical trial by testing members of the UK Royal Navy in a bid to identify the cause of scurvy. He chose 12 sailors who were already suffering from the disease and provided an identical diet and accommodation in order to eliminate factors associated with those [...]

December 3rd, 2014|Timeline|Comments Off on 1747 – First controlled medical trial