The Development and Validation of Expert Systems for Predicting Toxicity The Report and Recommendations of an ECVAM/ECB Workshop (ECVAM Workshop 24)
John C. Dearden, Martin D. Barratt, Romualdo Benigni, Douglas W. Bristol, Robert D. Combes, Mark T.D. Cronin, Philip N. Judson, Martin P. Payne, Ann M. Richard, Milon Tichy, Andrew P. Worth and Jeffrey J. Yourick
This is the report of the twenty-fourth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The joint ECVAM/ECB (European Chemicals Bureau) workshop on The Development and Validation of Expert Systems for Predicting Toxicity was held in Angera, Italy, on 1–4 October 1996, under the chairmanship of John Dearden (Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK). The workshop participants reviewed the current status of a variety of systems for predicting toxicity, focusing primarily on the prediction of endpoints relevant to mammalian (including human) toxicity. As a result of the discussions which took place, recommendations were made for the further development of expert systems. In addition, general principles were sought for the validation of expert systems, as were criteria for the acceptability of data to be used in their development and validation. In this report, the expert systems discussed at the workshop are critically reviewed; specific conclusions and recommendations, referring to the individual systems, are presented in the relevant sections of the report, whereas general conclusions and recommendations are summarised in the final section.