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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals - ATLA

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A Review of the Status of Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing and the Development of Integrated Testing Strategies for Assessing the Toxicity of Chemicals under REACH A Summary of a DEFRA-funded Project Conducted by Liverpool John Moores University and FRAME

Christina Grindon, Robert Combes, Mark T.D. Cronin, David W. Roberts and John Garrod

Liverpool John Moores University and FRAME were recently awarded a DEFRA tender to conduct a review of the status of alternative approaches to animal testing, and to recommend further research with regard to the forthcoming European Union REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) system for the safety testing and risk assessment of chemicals. The outcome of the project is summarised, including the prospects for in vitro and in silico testing, areas where reduction and refinement could be applied, and how decision-tree integrated testing strategies could be used to reduce the number of animals needed to fulfil the testing requirements of the REACH system. This paper is a prelude to a series of individual papers on detailed suggestions for applying non-animal methods to each of the major toxicity endpoints in REACH.