Metabolism and Neurotoxicity: The Significance of Genetically Engineered Cell Lines and New Three- Dimensional Cell Cultures
Sandra Coecke, Chantra Eskes, Joanne Gartion, Erwin van Vliet, Agnieszka Kinsner, Alessia Bogni, Laura Raimondo, Nicholaos Parissis and Ingrid Langezaal
Until now, no methods have been validated for the determination of neurotoxic effects or for the evaluation of metabolism-mediated hazards of chemical substances. The current test guidelines are based on studies in vivo, involving animals exposed to the test substance. In the EU White Paper on a Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy, which may result in up to 30,000 chemicals being screened for toxicity, the use of non-animal test methods is seen as essential and is encouraged. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the significance of novel technologies, including the use of genetically engineered cell lines and three-dimensional cell culture techniques for direct application in the regulatory hazard-assessment process, with an emphasis on metabolism-mediated toxicity and neurotoxicity.