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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals - ATLA

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Chapter 9: Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity

A chemical is considered to be mutagenic if it is capable of inducing heritable changes (mutations) in the genotype of a cell as a consequence of alterations to, or loss of, genes, chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Genotoxicity is a broader term that refers to the ability to interact with DNA and/or the cellular apparatus that regulates the fidelity of the genome, such as the spindle apparatus and topoisomerase enzymes.