Chapter 5: Local Toxicity: Acute Dermal and Ocular Effects
Acute local toxicity refers to the local toxic effects that may result from a single exposure to a chemical or product, by way of the oral, dermal, ocular or inhalation routes. The exposure can be incidental, accidental or deliberate (for example, in the case of cosmetics and certain medicines). The dermal route of exposure can also be a significant route for entry into the systemic circulation, as discussed in the section in Chapter 7 on percutaneous absorption. The main types of toxic effect are dermal and ocular corrosion and irritation, and these are generally assessed in a sequential manner in the context of tiered assessment strategies, such as those adopted by the OECD in 2001(1). In such strategies, dermal effects are generally assessed before ocular effects. Tiered approaches for assessing corrosion and irritation are illustrated in Figures 5.1 (dermal effects) and 5.2 (ocular effects).