Home banner
A-Z Index

Quick way to the find the information that you need...

More button
Register with FRAME

Although you do not need to register, any information you provide will be confidential and used only by FRAME to improve the website

Register button
Account Login
Forgot password?

The Journal


Alternatives to Laboratory Animals - ATLA

Download latest issue button Download back issues button Subscribe to ATLA
Contact Us

Tel icon

Tel: +44 (0)115 9584740

Tel icon

Fax: +44 (0)115 9503570

Make an Enquiry

Chapter 3: The Scientific Basis of Chemical Risk Assessment

The risk assessment of chemicals has conventionally been based on four elements:

1. Hazard identification: the identification of the inherent capacity of a chemical to cause one or more adverse effects, without regard to the likelihood or severity of such effects.

2. Hazard characterisation: the (semi-)quantitative evaluation of the nature of adverse effects following the exposure to a chemical, including the assessment of toxic potency (the relative toxicity of a chemical) and, where possible, a dose.response assessment.

3. Exposure assessment: the (semi-)quantitative evaluation of the likely exposure of man and/or the environment to a chemical.

4. Risk characterisation: the (semi-)quantitative estimation of the probability that an adverse effect will occur, and of its severity and duration in a given population under defined exposure conditions, based on elements 1.3.