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Refinement and Reduction in the Production of Genetically Modified Mice: Sixth Report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement

Vicky Robinson and Maggy Jennings

This paper introduces the sixth report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement (JWGR), which addresses reduction and refinement in the generation, management and care of genetically modified (GM) mice. The report provides a comprehensive review of the potential for reduction and refinement at all stages of the generation and maintenance of GM animals. The issues covered include scientific, procedural and practical issues. The need for good training in all of these areas is emphasised. The report concludes with a section on the need to develop comprehensive criteria for welfare assessments for GM mice and a preliminary list of criteria is provided. The full report has been published in Laboratory Animals.