Novel Advanced In Vitro Methods for Longterm Toxicity Testing The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 45
Walter Pfaller, Michael Balls, Richard Clothier, Sandra Coecke, Paul Dierickx, Björn Ekwall, Bryan A. Hanley, Thomas Hartung, Pilar Prieto, Michael P. Ryan, Gabriele Schmuck, Dariusz Šladowski, Joan-Albert Vericat, Albrecht Wendel, Armin Wolf and Jens Zimmer
This is the report of the forty-fifth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures that would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of nonanimal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organisation of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward. In addition, other topics relevant to the Three Rs concept of alternatives to animal experiments have been considered in several ECVAM workshops.