The Prediction of Human Skin Responses by Using the Combined In Vitro Fluorescein Leakage/Alamar Blue (Resazurin) Assay.
Richard Clothier, Gemma Starzec, Lionel Pradel, Victoria Baxter, Melanie Jones, Helen Cox and Linda Noble
A range of cosmetics formulations with human patch-test data were supplied in a coded form, for the examination of the use of a combined in vitro permeability barrier assay and cell viability assay to generate, and then test, a prediction model for assessing potential human skin patch-test results. The target cells employed were of the Madin Darby canine kidney cell line, which establish tight junctions and adherens junctions able to restrict the permeability of sodium fluorescein across the barrier of the confluent cell layer. The prediction model for interpretation of the in vitro assay results included initial effects and the recovery profile over 72 hours. A set of the hand-wash, surfactant-based formulations were tested to generate the prediction model, and then six others were evaluated. The model system was then also evaluated with powder laundry detergents and hand moisturisers: their effects were predicted by the in vitro test system. The model was under-predictive for two of the ten hand-wash products. It was over-predictive for the moisturisers, (two out of six) and eight out of ten laundry powders. However, the in vivo human patch test data were variable, and 19 of the 26 predictions were correct or within 0.5 on the 0.4.0 scale used for the in vivo scores, i.e. within the same variable range reported for the repeat-test hand-wash in vivo data.