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The Use of Fish Cells in Ecotoxicology The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 47

Argelia Castaño, Niels Bols, Thomas Braunbeck, Paul Dierickx, Marlies Halder, Boris Isomaa, Kazumi Kawahara, Lucy E. J. Lee, Carmel Mothersill, Peter Pärt, Guillermo Repetto, Juan Riego Sintes, Hans Rufli, Richard Smith, Chris Wood and Helmut Segner

This is the report of the forty-seventh of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM).  The objectives of the workshop were: a) to critically review the potential use of fish cells to replace, reduce or refine existing regulatory tests which involve the use of fish for ecotoxicological purposes; and b) to discuss the advantages, limitations, and possible future applications of fish cell systems in hazard assessment, ecotoxicological research and testing, and in environmental surveillance and monitoring.