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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals - ATLA

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Editorial: Animal Experimentation and Alternatives in the Age of Extremism

Michael Balls

In my plenary lecture at the 2nd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in 1996, I said that the Three Rs concept of Russell and Burch seemed to be going through a series of ages similar to the great ages of human civilisation, but in decades rather than in centuries, and in a different order.