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ATLA - ISI
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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals - ATLA

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The Development and Evaluation of In Vitro Alternative Assays: A Personal Perspective


Richard Clothier

Over the past 30 years, FRAME has actively participated in the development, evaluation and validation of in vitro alternative methods through the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) in the University of Nottingham Medical School. Much has been learned through collaboration with industry (especially the cosmetics industry), other organisations (especially ECVAM), and certain individuals (notably Dr Björn Ekwall), particularly in relation to the need to use human cell cultures and to obtain, wherever possible, high-quality human data for use in in vivo/in vitro comparisons. Reference is made to the author’s experience as Director of the FAL, notably in the development of in vitro assays for basal cytotoxicity, phototoxicity and the effects of repeated dosage.

Full text pdf 38(6), 457–469