Home banner
Divider
A-Z Index

Quick way to the find the information that you need...

More button
Register with FRAME

Although you do not need to register, any information you provide will be confidential and used only by FRAME to improve the website

Register button
Account Login
Forgot password?

ATLA - ISI
The Journal

 

Alternatives to Laboratory Animals - ATLA

Download latest issue button Download back issues button Subscribe to ATLA
Contact Us

Tel icon

Tel: +44 (0)115 9584740


Tel icon

Fax: +44 (0)115 9503570

Make an Enquiry

Collaboration Between ZEBET, FRAME and ECVAM: FRAME’s Contribution to Establishing the Three Rs in Europe


Horst Spielmann

FRAME has more than any other institution contributed to the implementation of the Three  Rs concept in Europe. The first step was achieved by establishing the European Research Group on Alternatives to Toxicity Testing (ERGATT), in which individual scientists in several European countries began to collaborate to promote the development and validation of in vitro toxicity tests in order to refine, reduce and replace the use of animals in toxicity testing. The first successful project was the start of the INVITOX in vitro toxicology database, which is today managed by ECVAM. Major milestones were the establishment in 1989 of ZEBET, the first national centre for alternatives, in Germany, and of ECVAM in 1991. In 1990, ERGATT and CAAT organised a workshop in Amden, Switzerland, at which European and US scientists developed the concept of experimental validation of toxicity tests, which today remains the basis for the independent, scientific validation process. ECVAM has applied this validation concept in all of its successful validation studies, which have provided in vitro toxicity tests that have been accepted for regulatory purposes by the EU Commission and by the OECD. By re-launching the ATLA journal in 1983, FRAME provided another powerful scientific tool for promoting the Three Rs in Europe and around the world. The close cooperation of scientists from FRAME, ZEBET and ECVAM has most effectively promoted and established the Three Rs as the basic scientific, ethical and legal concept for refining, reducing and replacing the use of experimental animals.

Full text pdf 37(S2), 23–27