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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals - ATLA

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The FRAME Research Programme Under the Direction of Dr Richard Clothier


Robert D. Combes

The work of Dr Richard Clothier (Reader in Cellular Toxicology and Director of the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory in the University of Nottingham Medical School) in relation to the FRAME Research Programme, is reviewed. He made a very substantial contribution to FRAME’s laboratory research work over the last 20 years, by publishing many research papers, mainly with respect to method development and the application of new replacement toxicity test methods, particularly those involving the use of human cells in tissue culture. In addition, he participated in a number of international validation studies that have facilitated the regulatory acceptance of certain new methods. Lastly, he has been closely involved in the logistical aspects of obtaining and maintaining external research funding for FRAME from industrial sponsors.