The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) was opened in 1991 as part of the University of Nottingham’s medical school housed in the Queen’s Medical Centre.  Under the direction of Dr Richard Clothier, the FAL established itself as a leading laboratory for alternatives research.  This tradition has continued under Dr Andrew Bennett who replaced Dr Clothier in 2006.  By focusing its efforts on in vitro studies and improved testing protocols, the FAL sets a very high standard for what can be accomplished when alternatives to animal experimentation are applied effectively.  The FAL’s proximity to the Queen’s Medical Centre provides it with a supply of human sample cells, all obtained under full ethical approval under the license from the Human Tissue Authority.   This allows the FAL to conduct studies using primary human tissue in vitro greatly reducing, and at times fully eliminating the necessity for animal modelling.