Prior to 1977, tests for epidermal responses to substances were carried out primarily on animals, which generally produced misleading results. In order to effectively, and safely, investigate reactions in human subjects Griffith and Buehler developed the ‘repeated-insult patch test’. By concentrating and localising samples of the substance to a small, confined grid of 12mm, researchers were now able to observe results on humans much more quickly and more accurately than with animals. This is an example of an alternative technique that not only replaces the need for animals, but ultimately generates better results.
1991 alternative alternatives animal experiments animal research animal testing animal tests anti-vivisection cell culture cells cosmetics testing debate drug development drug testing EU experimental design first frame FRAME Alternatives Laboratory frame debate FRAME Training Schools Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments genetic modification genetics gm mice Home Office imaging in vitro Law legislation medicine newswatch non-invasive reduction refinement replacement skin Social stem cells Three Rs timeline toxicity UK vivisection world congress