German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen is recognised as the first individual to study the properties of X-rays in 1895. Roughly a decade later, X-rays would be adopted as a medical tool to non-invasively observe patients. The ability to study a subject without the need for vivisection provided an important new alternate methodology to many animal studies. The discovery and development of X-ray imaging would uncover a new category in alternatives that now included technologies such and MRI, CT and PET scans.
1977 1991 alternative alternatives animal experiments animal testing anti-vivisection case study cell culture cells debate EU first frame FRAME Alternatives Laboratory Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments genetic modification genetics gm mice Home Office human volunteers imaging in vitro Law ld50 legislation medicine molecular biology non-invasive prague protection reduction refinement replacement russell and burch skin Social stem cells The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique Three Rs timeline toxicity UK vivisection world congress