German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen is recognised as the first individual to study the properties of X-rays in 1895. Roughly a decade later, X-rays would be adopted as a medical tool to non-invasively observe patients. The ability to study a subject without the need for vivisection provided an important new alternate methodology to many animal studies. The discovery and development of X-ray imaging would uncover a new category in alternatives that now included technologies such and MRI, CT and PET scans.
alternative alternatives animal experiments animal research animal testing animal tests anti-vivisection cell culture cells cosmetics cosmetics testing debate drug development drug testing education EU experimental design first frame FRAME Alternatives Laboratory frame debate FRAME Training Schools Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments genetic modification gm mice Home Office imaging in vitro Law legislation medicine newswatch non-invasive reduction refinement replacement Social stem cells survey Three Rs timeline toxicity UK vivisection world congress